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Unit 7. CULTURAL DIVERSITY



LANGUAGE FOCUS
Phonetics
Stress in two-syllable words with the same spelling:
'export (n) - ex'port (v). 'decrease (n) - de'crease (v)...


Grammar
- Comparative and superlative adjectives
The whole matter is further complicated by the fact that they refuse to sit down and negotiate.
It is best to get to know about the culture of the country where you truvel to.
- Articles
We lay food on the altar as we believe that our ancestors will enjoy the meal with us.
We did have a great time in the ancient city of Hoi An.
VOCABULARY
Words and phrases related to tradition, cultural characteristics and superstitions
belief, superstitious, wedding ceremony...
I. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word whose underlined part differs from the other three in
pronunciation in each of the following questions.
1. A. tradition                         B. cultural                   C. accordance                         D. similarity
2. A. ritual                   B. superstitious           C. origin                      D. exist
3. A. fortune               B. important                C. ancestor                  D. support
4. A. lucky                  B. success                    C. status                      D. culture
5. A. decided              B. needed                    C. wanted                   D. opened
II. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word that differs from the other three in the position of primary stress in each of the following questions.
1. A. belief                  B. story                       C. marriage                  D. wedding
2. A. prepare               B. believe                    C. preserve                  D. offer
3. A. follow                 B. altar                                    C. throughout              D. legend
4. A. argue                  B. venture                   C. couple                     D. diverse
5. A. propose               B. standard                 C. research                  D. engage
III. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the underlined part that needs correction in each of the following sentences.
1. She teaches the students to have respect for different races and appreciate a diversity of other cultures.
                         A                                          B                           C                    D
2. It is the city of huge musical and artistic diversity, where every taste is catered for.
             A                                     B                                  C                                       D
3. Does television adequately reflects the ethnic and cultural diversity of the country?
                    A                              B                                 C                          D
4. People are encouraging to celebrate the diversity of their communities.
                               A                  B                   C                               D
5. The teaching profession does not yet reflect the diversity of its population.
                                    A                     B             C                       D
IV. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the following sentences.
1. Cultural diversity expands choices, nurtures ____ variety of skills, human values and worldviews and provides wisdom from the past to inform the future.
A. a                             B. an                            C. the                          D. no article
2. Cultural diversity is ____ mainspring for sustainable development for individuals, communities and countries.
A. а                             B. an                            C. the                          D. no article
3. The Heritage Education for Sustainable Development project aims ____ strengthening the linkage between culture and education for sustainable development.
A. to                            B. for                           C. at                            D. by
4. Cultural diversity (also known as multiculturalism) is ____ group of diverse individuals from different cultures or societies.
A. a                             B. an                            C. the                          D. no article
5. Today's workforce is made up ____ a very diverse population of individuals from every part of the world, which creates dynamic multiracial and multicultural organizations.
A. by                           B. from                        C. of                            D. with
6. The phrase "cultural diversity" is also sometimes used to mean ____ variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole.
A. a                             B. an                            C. the                          D. no article
7. Globalization is often said to have ____ negative effect on the world's cultural diversity.
A. a                             B. an                            C. the                          D. no article
8. Productivity increases exponentially when people of all cultures pull together towards a single ____ goal.
A. inspire                     B. inspiring                  C. inspired                   D. inspiratory
9. Cultural diversity is a driving force of development, not only ____ economic growth, but also as a means of leading a more fulfilling intellectual, emotional, moral and spiritual life.
A. in terms of              B. with respect to        C. in response to         D. with the aim of
10. Cultural diversity is an asset that is ____ for poverty reduction and the achievement of sustainable development.
A. crucial                     B. fundamental           C. critical                     D. indispensable
11. In a diverse workplace, employees are more likely to remain loyal when they feel ____ and valued for their unique contribution.
A. respectful               B. respected                C. respective               D. respectable
12. Diverse cultural perspectives can inspire ____ and drive innovation.
A. creation                  B. creator                    C. creature                   D. creativity
13. By offering a platform for the open exchange of ideas, businesses can reap ____ benefits of diversity in the workplace.
A. the big                    B. the bigger               C. the biggest              D. the most big
14. Cultural diversity is important because our country, workplaces, and schools increasingly ____ of various cultural, racial, and ethnic groups.
A. comprise                 B. contain                    C. include                    D. consist
15. Diversity makes our country a ____ place to live, as people from diverse cultures contribute language skills, new ways of thinking, new knowledge, and different experiences.
A. interesting              B. more interesting                  C. most interesting                  D. least interesting
16. Cultural diversity supports the idea that every person can make a unique and positive contribution to the larger society because of, ____ in spite of their differences.
A. rather than              B. instead of               C. other than               D. in place of
17. Often people are afraid that ___ differences will divide people from each other.
A. recognize                B. recognizes               C. recognizing             D. recognized
18. If you are able to explain the importance of diversity to children and show them how diverse the world is, you can help them to be ____ toward people of different cultural backgrounds.
A. more open-minded                                     B. more opening mind
C. more opened mind                                     D. more opening minded
19. Parents or family members need to sit down and talk with children as well as present them ____ easy-to-understand data, and talk about the importance of cultural diversity,
A. to                            B. for                           C. at                            D. with
20. Bringing together people of various backgrounds with different life experiences can generate ideas or perspectives ____ others may not have ever considered or been aware of.
A. how                        B. what                       C. why                                    D. that
21. The modern workplace is a mosaic of different ideas, beliefs and opinions, which ____ together create an atmosphere of cultural diversity.
A. being taking           B. taking                     C . taken                      D. having taken
22. For some students being in a diverse school or college can prepare them for the real world, ____ they can take a stance on a subject and be able to voice their opinion from an informed point of view.
A. in that                     B. that                         C. at which                  D. where
23. Most authorities tend ____ that diversity is more beneficial to society than it is harmful.
A. to believe                B. believe                    C. believing                 D. believed
24. "Do you have a cultural diversity in your class?" “____”
A. I'm sorry, but I don't see your point in the way you argue.
B. Sure. My classmates come from different areas of our country.
C. I can't understand what my friends talk with their provincial accents.
D. It's very nice to be friends with people of different backgrounds.
25. "Do you think cultural diversity does good to us all?" "____"
A. Actually, I feel very difficult to communicate with people of a different culture.
B. When I travel, I meet a lot of interesting people from different cultures.
C. When you make friend with a foreigner, you are able to know one more culture.
D. Travelling is a part of my business, so I learn much about others' cultures.
26. Understanding and respecting individuals who are different from one's self, ____ racially, socially, ideologically or spiritually, is a natural outcome of understanding the vast diversity of God's creation.
A. either                      B. neither                    C. whether                  D. both
27. The more different cultures work together, ____ essential to avoid problems.
A. the more cultural competency training is               B. the more culturally competent training is
C. the more cultural competent training is                  D. the more culturally competency training is
28. Cultural problems can range from miscommunication to actual conflict, all ____ effective worker productivity and performance.
A. endanger                B. endangers               C. endangering            D. endangered
29. Students who attend schools with ____ diverse population can develop an understanding of the perspectives of children from different backgrounds and learn to function in a multicultural, multiethnic environment.
A. a                             B. an                            C. the                          D. no article
30. In a classroom the teacher can structure learning groups that are diverse and devise activities that require each student ____ to the group.
A. to contribute           B. contribute               C. contributing            D. contributed
V. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following sentences.
1. Diversity includes physical appearance, religious belief, and race but your opinions and thoughts and the impact they make on society are also part of diversity.
A. influence                B. benefit                    C. response                  D. value
2. Western cultures are often more informal, where business leaders often refer to each other by first names. In countries like Japan, this is frowned upon as it indicates disrespect.
A. hated by                 B. disapproved of                   C. agreed on                D. kept away from
3. Communities that feel they have a connection with local businesses will be more inclined to support those companies.
A. feel like                  B. have a tendency                 C. have a strong will               D. feel sure
4. People of different cultural and racial backgrounds can interact and get to learn and appreciate each other's uniqueness hence fostering tolerance and peaceful coexistence.
A. offering support for                                   B. drawing encouragement from
C. making an agreement on                            D. promoting the development of
5. In general, most students are comfortable interacting with people, behaviors, and ideas that they are familiar with but react with fear and apprehension when faced with the unfamiliar.
A. comprehension       B. confidence              C. anxiety                    D. surprise
VI. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the sentence that is closest in meaning to each of the following sentences.
1. People from diverse cultures can make American companies more productive and profitable.
A. American companies can make themselves more productive and profitable with diverse cultures.
B. American companies can be made more productive and profitable by people from diverse cultures.
C. Diverse cultures can make American companies more productive and profitable with their people.
D. Diverse cultures can make American companies and their people more productive and profitable.
2. Dying languages and urbanization are threats to cultural diversity.
A. Of the threats to cultural diversity is dying languages and urbanization.
B. Cultural diversity is threatened with dying languages and urbanization.
C. Dying languages and urbanization is making cultural diversity a threat.
D. Culture diversity is threatening to kill some languages and urbanization.
3. When we interact and try to understand others, we will not Judge them.
A. We will not judge others if we interact and try to understand them.
B. Unless we do not interact and try to understand others, we will not judge them.
C. If we do not try to interact and understand others, we will not judge them.
D. We interact and try to understand others; otherwise, we will not judge them.
4. Cultural diversity in the workplace can sometimes lead to intercultural conflicts.
A. Cultural diversity in the workplace can sometimes result from intercultural conflicts.
B. Intercultural conflicts can sometimes result from cultural diversity in the workplace.
C. In the workplace, cultural diversity can be sometimes the leaders of intercultural conflicts.
D. In the workplace, intercultural conflicts can sometimes be led by cultural diversity.
5. Learning about cultural differences can actually bring people closer together.
A. To bring people closer together, we have to learn about cultural differences.
B. To learn about cultural differences is to bring people closer together.
C. People can be brought closer together by learning about cultural differences.
D. People can learn about cultural differences to bring themselves closer together.
VII. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the sentence that best combines each pair of sentences given.
1. Most of us enjoy one aspect of cultural diversity. This can also be a good way to start learning about new cultures.
A. Enjoying one aspect of cultural diversity can also be a good way to start learning about new cultures.
B. As most of us enjoy one aspect of cultural diversity, it can also be a good way to start learning about new cultures.
C. Most of us enjoy one aspect of cultural diversity, which can also be a good way to start learning about new cultures.
D. A good way for most of us to start learning about new cultures can also be enjoying one aspect of cultural diversity.
2. Cultural diversity can be a source of tension. It can also bolster workplace productivity.
A. Cultural diversity can be a source of tension, but it can also bolster workplace productivity.
B. Cultural diversity can bolster workplace productivity, but it can also be a source of tension.
C. Being a source of tension can also make cultural diversity bolster workplace productivity.
D. When bolstering workplace productivity, cultural diversity can be a source of tension.
3. Diverse companies are more aware of the needs of their community. They tend to give more monetarily and engage in cultural events in their communities.
A. Because diverse companies are more aware of the needs of their community, they tend to give more monetarily and engage in cultural events in their communities.
B. Diverse companies are more aware of the needs of their community, but they tend to give more monetarily and engage in cultural events in their communities.
C. Although diverse companies are more aware of the needs of their community, they tend to give more monetarily and engage in cultural events in their communities.
D. Diverse companies are not only more aware of the needs of their community, but they also tend to give more monetarily and engage in cultural events in their communities.
4. Students' needs are diverse. There are various types of schools and training programs to choose from.
A. Students' needs are diverse although there are various types of schools and training programs to choose from.
B. There are various types of schools and training programs for students of diverse needs to choose from.
C. Students' needs are diverisifying types of schools and training programs for them to choose from.
D. Students' needs are diverse, so there are various types of schools and training programs to choose from.
5. There is a wide range of classroom activities. These activities can help students recognize the essential humanity and value of different types of people.
A. There is a wide range of classroom activities that can help students recognize the essential humanity and value of different types of people.
B. A wide range of activities can help recognize the essential humanity and value of different types of students in the classroom.
C. In the classroom, there is a wide range of activities which can help students recognize the essential humanity and value of different types.
D. Students can be helped to recognize a wide range of activities of essential humanity and value of different types of people.
VIII. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks.
Human beings are extremely diverse in very many ways. People differ (1) ____ opinions, race, nationality, gender, age, sexuality, ethnicity, class, religion, lifestyle and so much more, yet at the very basic we are all human species. Ideally, all people feel (2) ____ and joy despite the differences. Today, the changes in time and technology have made (3) ____ extremely impossible for any group of people to live without (4) ____ with others outside their group. Often people of different cultural and geographical (5) ____ meet in international conferences, education exchange programs, sports, etc.
Sadly, the history of mankind (6) ____ against each other based on cultural differences has been with us (7) ____. So many people have died or have been denied their rights because of individual (8) ____. Properties and economies have also been (9) ____ due to lack of understanding. Unfortunately, some of these occurrences are visible even today, perpetuated by people who little understand (10) ____ importance of the uniqueness of our diversity.
1. A. from                               B. by                                       C. in                                        D. with
2. A. pain                                B. pained                                 C. painful                                D. painless
3. A. that                                 B. what                                   C. is                                         D. this
4. A. interact                           B. interaction                          C. interactive                           D. interacting
5. A. backgrounds                   B. settings                               C. identities                             D. surroundings
6. A. to discriminate               B. have discriminated             C. discriminating                     D. discriminated
7. A. at times                           B. now that                             C. long ago                              D. for ages
8. A. greed                              B. greedy                                C. greediness                           D. greedily
9. A. destroying                      B. destroyed                           C. destructive                          D. destructively
10. A. this                               B. an                                        C. the                                      D.  that
IX. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.
There is always conflict between people because we have different needs and wants. For example, you may want to see an action movie but your significant other wants to see a comedy or you may prefer eating at a Mexican restaurant while your spouse wants Chinese. However, you have known each other well for years and will work it out.
In the workplace, there is always conflict as well but it's usually more difficult to resolve than with personal relationships. There are differences between workers, between workers and supervisors, between departments, between companies, between companies and their customers, between companies and their governing bodies and on it goes. These relationships are usually not as deep or trusting as personal ones making resolving disputes more difficult and challenging.
Interestingly, most workplace conflict is totally unnecessary because they are usually the result of simple misunderstandings, miscommunications or small differences that could be easily resolved if the parties truly knew each other's motivations. Unfortunately, at work there is rarely the opportunity to develop deep personal relationships and when you add the complexity of cross-cultural differences and the gulf can seem insurmountable. Culture brings unique perspectives on deadlines, conflict resolution, speaking one's mind, working as a team and much more.
However, with a little training and education people will recognize that they have a lot more in common than they have differences. When cross-cultural conflict is resolved and employees with diverse backgrounds and skills start to work together, the potential and promise of diversity in the workplace can be fully realized.
1. It is stated in paragraph 1 that people come into conflict with each other because of their difference in ____.
A. favorite movies                                          B. favorite foods
C. needs and wants                                         D. insights and ideas
2. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a cause of conflict at workplaces?
A. simple misunderstandings                          B. small differences
C. miscommunications                                    D. deep personal relationships
3. The word "parties" in the passage most probably refers to ____.
A. bosses                     B. managers                C. employees               D. colleagues
4. The word "insurmountable" in the passage mostly means ____.
A. too much to be calculated                          B. too great to be overcome
C. too big to be measured                               D. too many to be counted
5. According to the passage, people can solve their conflict at workplace by ____.
A. training and education                               B. realizing the potential of diversity
C. working with one another                          D. keeping promise with each other
X. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.
What is cultural diversity? Diversity is nothing more than a difference from the majority. In any culture, there is a majority and many minorities. Culture is a set of norms that set standards for a society of what is acceptable behavior.
In every culture, there are basic standards for social interaction such as personal space distance, eye contact, amount of body language displayed in public, negotiating style, etc. In America, we stand about eighteen inches apart when engaged in normal conversation; prefer very direct eye contact; are pretty demonstrative with body language and negotiate very directly, always asking the other party for their "bottom line”. In other cultures, they may stand closer or farther than we are comfortable, may view direct eye contact as rude, be more or less open to displaying body language and negotiate more indirectly.
In America, many of us have a peculiar habit of assuming that those who differ from our norms are wrong. We tend to view the world from a rather myopic view leading to those outside this country calling us "Ugly Americans".
Cultural diversity makes our country richer by making it a more interesting place in which to live. Just think how boring a meal would be without Chinese, Mexican, Japanese, Italian, German, French or Indian food!
Cultural diversity also makes our country stronger and better able to compete in the new global economy. People from diverse cultures bring language skills, new ways of thinking, creative solutions to difficult problems and negotiating skills.
In the past, ethnographers in the United States used to refer to our country as a melting pot where new immigrants would eventually be fully integrated into the American culture. This has obviously not happened so modern researchers have not begun to talk about America as a garden salad where different cultural diversity mixes with the European American culture to form a meal where all of the various ingredients are still readily identifiable.
Cultural diversity makes the United States a much more interesting place in which to live for all of its inhabitants. If we all thought alike imagine how boring the world would be! Thank God for diversity!
1. The best title of the passage could be ____.
A. American Cultural Diversity                                  B. American Ethical Minorities
C. American Standards                                               D. America as a Melting Pot
2. The word "norms" in the passage is closest in meaning to ____.
A. examples                            B. rules                        C. data                                    D. models
3. As discussed in the passage, which of the following may NOT be considered polite in American culture?
A. Maintaining direct eye contacts while talking with others
B. Negotiating in a very direct manner
C. Keeping about half a meter away from others in normal conversation
D. Touching others during the conversation with them
4. The word "party" in the passage almost means ____.
A. staff                                    B. presenter                 C. host                         D. negotiator
5. The phrase "bottom line" in the passage mostly means ____.
A. the required minimum                                            B. the most important concern
C. the key point to their success                                 D. the minimum acceptable benefit
6. The word "assuming" in the passage is closest in meaning to ____.
A. thinking                              B. saying                     C. arguing                   D. describing
7. The word "it" in the passage refers to ____.
A. cultural diversity                B. our country             C. global economy                  D. this country
8. Which of the following is not stated as a benefit of having cultural diversity for America?
A. New ways of thinking                                           B. Negotiating skills
C. Language skills                                                       D. New styles of arts
9. The author mentions the phrase "melting pot" to ____.
A. describe a misassumption about American culture
B. to explain why Americans prefer to serve garden salad
C. to change Americans' viewpoints on their own culture
D. to advise Americans on how to look at their culture
10. Which of the following best describes the author's attitude throughout the passage?
A. Supportive of cultural diversity
B. Reluctant to accept cultural diversity
C. Underestimating the values of cultural diversity
D. Taking pride in living in a diverse culture



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