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Mitigation - reducing climate change - involves reducing the flow of heat-trapping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, either by reducing sources of these gases (for example, the burning of fossil fuels for electricity, heat or transport) or enhancing the "sinks" that ____ (1) and store these gases (such as the oceans, forests and soil). The goal of mitigation is to avoid dangerous human ____ (2) with the climate system, and "stabilize greenhouse gas levels in a timeframe sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner" (from the 2014 report on Mitigation of Climate Change from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, page 4). Adaptation - adapting to life in a changing climate - involves adjusting to actual or expected future climate. The goal is to reduce our ____ (3) to the harmful effects of climate change (like sea-level encroachment, more intense extreme weather events or food insecurity). It also encompasses making the most of any potential beneficial opportunities ____ (4) with climate change (for example, longer growing seasons or increased yields in some regions).
Unit 6. GLOBAL WARMING - KEY
PART I. LANGUAGE FOCUS
1. Vocabulary
emission (n): khí thải
fertilizer (n): phân bón
deforestation (n): sự phá rừng
man-made (adj): do con người
irresponsible (adj): vô trách nhiệm
suffer (v): chịu đựng
infectious (adj): lây nhiễm
ecological (adj): thuộc về sinh thái
come up with (phr-v): nghĩ ra
go through (phr-v): thảo luận chi tiết
work out (phr-v): tìm ra
severe (adj): khốc liệt
upset (v): phá vỡ
environmentalist (n): nhà môi trường học
alternative (adj): thay thế
identify (v): xác định
suspect (v): nghi ngờ
extinction (n): sự tuyệt chủng
numerous (adj): nhiều
catastrophic (adj): thảm khốc
release (v): thải ra, làm giảm
demand (n): nhu cầu
disrupt (v): gây cản trở
capture (v): hút
absorb (v): hút, hấp thụ
drought (n): hạn hán
flood (n): lũ lụt
injure (v): làm tổn thương
famine (n): nạn đói
delay (v): trì hoãn
disappearance (n): sự biến mất
diversity (n): sự đa dạng
ecosystem (n): hệ sinh thái
light bulb (n): bóng đèn
significantly (adv): một cách hiệu quả, mạnh mẽ
lawmaker (n): người lập pháp
ban (v): cấm
2. Grammar: Perfect participles and perfect gerunds
2.1. Perfect participles (Phân từ hoàn thành)
2.1.1. Form: having + V-3/(e)d
e.g.      Having met his parents, he left home.
(Sau khi gặp bố mẹ mình, anh ấy rời khỏi nhà.)
He gave up smoking after having seen the death of a smoker.
(Cậu ta đã bỏ hút thuốc sau khi thấy cái chết của một người nghiện hút thuốc.)
Having drunk too much alcohol, he is vomiting now.
(Vì đã uống quá nhiều rượu nên giờ ông ta đang nôn mửa.)
* Note: Nếu phân từ hoàn thành đứng đầu cậu ta phải dùng dấu phẩy (,) giữa hai mệnh đề.
e.g.      Having met his parents, he left home.
(Sau khi gặp bố mẹ mình, anh ấy rời khỏi nhà)
2.1.2. Use:
* Chúng ta dùng phân từ hoàn thành trong một mệnh đề để diễn tả nó xảy ra trước động từ của mệnh đề còn lại.
e.g.      Having registered, Anna entered the conference room.
= After Anna had registered, she entered the conference room.
(Sau khi đã đăng ký Anna đi vào phòng hội nghị.)
* Chúng ta dùng phân từ hoàn thành trong một mệnh đề để diễn tả lý do cho động từ của mệnh đề còn lại (mệnh đề chính).
e.g.      Having worked on his computer for a long time, Peter feels dizzy now.
= Because Peter has worked on his computer for a long time, he feels dizzy now.
(Giờ Peter thấy chóng mặt là do cậu ấy đã làm việc trên máy tính quá lâu.)
* Note: chúng ta chỉ dùng phân từ hoàn thành khi hai mệnh đề có cùng chủ ngữ.
2.2. Perfect Gerunds (Danh động từ hoàn thành)
2.2.1. Form: having + V-3/(e)d
Danh động từ hoàn thành được dùng theo 2 cấu trúc sau:
* Verb + (object) + preposition + perfect gerund
e.g.      He apologized for having broken his watch.
(Cậu bé xin lỗi vì đã làm vỡ mất chiếc đồng hồ.).
They praised the old lady for having caught the thief.
(Họ ca ngợi bà cụ vì đã tóm được tên trộm.)
Một số động từ dùng với cấu trúc trên: apologize for, accuse ... of, blame ... for, congratulate ... on, criticize ... for, punish ... for, thank ... for, suspect ... of
* Verb + perfect gerund
e.g.      The little girl admitted having eaten all the cakes.
(Cô bé thừa nhận là đã ăn hết số bánh đó.)
Một số động từ dùng với cấu trúc trên: deny, admit, forget, mention, remember, recall, regret
* Note: để tạo thành thể phủ định ta thêm not vào trước danh động từ hoàn thành.
e.g.      Hana was punished for not having done her homework.
(Hana bị phạt vì chưa làm bài tập.)
2.2.2. Use: Danh động từ hoàn thành là hình thức thay thế cho danh động từ khi chúng ta đề cập đến hành động trong quá khứ xảy ra trước động từ chính đứng trước nó.
e.g.      Peter admitted having poured milk into the bowl.
= Peter admitted that he had poured milk into the bowl.
(Peter thừa nhận là đã đổ sữa vào trong cái bát.)
3. Pronunciation
Echo questions (câu hỏi lặp lại)
Câu hỏi lặp lại dùng để hỏi lại phần thông tin mà ta vừa nghe nhưng chưa rõ hoặc thể hiện sự ngạc nhiên hoặc chú tâm vào lời nói của người khác (ồ thế á?). Ta lên giọng ở cuối câu hỏi lặp lại.
* Ta có thể hỏi bằng cách lặp lại một phần thông tin.
e.g.      A: David said to me that he's getting married.
(David nói với mình rằng anh ấy sắp lấy vợ)
B: He's getting married?
(Ồ thế á?)
* Ta có thể hỏi bằng cách dùng câu có hình thức là câu kể nhưng có từ để hỏi ở cuối câu.
e.g.      A: My lover's dog is so lovely. Her name is Adam.
(Con chó của người yêu em thật đáng yêu. Tên nó là Adam.)
B: Her name is what?
(Tên nó là gì cơ?)
PART II. PRACTICE

2. Give the English word and Vietnamese meaning to each of the following transcription.
1. ____emission______ /iˈmɪʃn/ (n): _____khí thải______
2. ____infectious______ /ɪnˈfekʃəs/ (adj): _____lây nhiễm____
3. _____ecological______ /ˌiːkəˈlɒdʒɪkl/ (adj): ____thuộc về sinh thái______
4. _____environmentalist______ /ɪnˌvaɪrənˈmentəlɪst/ (n): _____nhà môi trường học_____
5. _____extinction______ /ɪkˈstɪŋkʃn/ (n): _____sự tuyệt chủng______
6. _____numerous______ /ˈnjuːmərəs/ (adj): ____nhiều_____
7. _____disrupt______ /dɪsˈrʌpt/ (v): _____gây cản trở_____
8. _____capture______ /ˈkæptʃə(r)/ (v): _____hút______
9. _____absorb_____ /əbˈzɔːb/ (v): _____hút, hấp thụ______
10. _____famine_____ /ˈfæmɪn/ (n): ______nạn đói____
3. Give the correct form of the verbs in brackets.






1. ______Having taken off/ Taking off_______ (take off) his shoes, he realized that they smelled awful.
2. ______Having reached/ Reaching_________ (reach) the top of the mountain, they started a fire.
3. Their clients agreed to pay by check after _____having received/ receiving_____ (receive) the contracts.
4. He went out to play after _______having asked/ asking_____ (ask) his mother's permission.
5. We went to bed after ______having switched/ switching_____ (switch) all the lights.
6. My friend's cousin apologized for _____having broken/ breaking___ (break) my vase 4 months ago.
7. His neighbors suspected him of ____having dumped/ dumping____ (dump) a lot of rubbish onto the beach.
8. The president was awarded for ____having promoted/ promoting___ (promote) the close relationship between two countries.
9. Last week, that strong man ____was accused___  (accuse) of having attacked the old lady's puppy.
10. They congratulated their beloved mayor on _____having given/ giving_____ (give) an excellent speech.
4. Complete the following sentences.
1. He did not drive home himself after _____having drunk too much/ having broken his arm ____.
2. ___Having seen the photograph of the place/ Having heard some bad news about that university___, they had no desire to go there.
3. _____After having fallen from the horse back____, he was taken to hospital and had an operation.
4. She said good-bye to him after ____having realized that he was a liar/ having been cheated_____.
5. Farmers turned to use bio-fertilizers after ______having realized/ having been told about the dangers of chemical fertilizers____.
5. Find and correct mistakes in following sentences.
1. Have washed the car, the skilled mechanic noticed a small scratch on the front left fender.
    Having washed the car, the skilled mechanic noticed a small scratch on the front left fender.
Or: Washing the car, the skilled mechanic noticed a small scratch on the front left fender.
2. The sales manager was praised for take an important role in the development of the organization.
    The sales manager was praised for having taken an important role in the development of the organization.
Or: The sales manager was praised for taking an important role in the development of the organization.
3. Read his proposal carefully, he submitted it to his lecturer.
    Having read his proposal carefully, he submitted it to his lecturer.
Or: Reading his proposal carefully, he submitted it to his lecturer.
4. The board of director made big decisions after discuss for a long time.
    The board of director made big decisions after having discussed for a long time.
5. The architect's co-worker apologized for having not kept his promise.
    The architect's co-worker apologized for not having kept his promise.
Or: The architect's co-worker apologized for not keeping his promise.
PART III. TEST YOURSELF
1. Gap - filling: Choose the suitable words from the box to complete the sentences.
came up           disrupted                     upset                identified                      suffering
suspect             fertilizer                       went                 through                        numerous        alternatives

1. He spread ______fertilizer______ on the field with a rake.
2. Many companies are _______suffering______ from a shortage of skilled staff.
3. She _________came up__________ with a new idea for increasing sales.
4. She _____went through______ the company's accounts, looking for evidence of fraud.
5. He arrived an hour late and _______upset_____ all our arrangements.
6. We can agree to their terms or else pull out of the deal completely: those are the two _____alternatives___
7. Scientists have ______identified_______ a link between diet and cancer.
8. If you _____suspect______ a gas leak, do not strike a match or even turn on an electric light.
9. The advantages of this system are too _______numerous______ to mention.
10. Bus services will be ______disrupted_____ tomorrow because of the bridge closure.
2. Match each word/phrase on the left with its description on the right.
1. irresponsible
a. not thinking enough about the effects of what they do
2. alternative
b. existing in large numbers
3. identify
c. that can be used instead of something else
4. numerous
d. causing a lot of damage and suffering
5. catastrophic
e. to find or discover somebody/something
Your answer:
1. ____a____              2. ____c____              3. ____e____              4. ____b____              5. ____d____
3. Word formation: Give the correct form of the words in brackets.
1. The government has pledged to clean up industrial __________emission(s)________ (emit)
2. Flu is highly ________infectious________ (infect)
3. We risk upsetting the (ecology) ________ecological_______ balance of the area.
4. Strikes are causing severe ________disruption_________ to all train services. (disrupt)
5. The mountain gorilla is on the verge of _______extinction______ (extinct)
6. Police are investigating the ________disappearance/ appearance__________ of a young woman. (appear)
7. There is a need for greater _______diversity______ and choice in education. (diverse)
8. Profits have increased _________significantly_________ over the past few years. (signify)
9. State ___lawmakers___ have been arguing over the new healthcare reform bill for months. (lawmake)
10. It is said that land erosion is caused by widespread ________deforestation_______. (forest)
4. Choose the best answer.
1. We apologize for the delay in answering your letter. The underlined word has the closest meaning to ____.
A. decay                      B. repay                       C. agreement                           D. postponement
2. William: "Who will come to Thomas's housewarming party?" - Scot: “____”
A. He's invited all his fellow workers.                        B. No, I haven't been there.
C. It will be warm house.                                            D. He's cooking rice and noodle.
3. The country's entire grain harvest has been hit by a ____.
A. brought                   B. fought                     C. drought                               D. sought
7. The related publications are far too numerous ____ list individually.
A. to                            B. from                        C. of                                        D. into
5. "After her partner had uninstalled a program, he restarted the computer." has the closest meaning to ____.
A. After had uninstalled a program, her partner restarted the computer,
B. Had uninstalled a program, her partner restarted the computer.
C. Having uninstalled a program, her partner restarted the computer.
D. After uninstalled a program, her partner restarted the computer
6. "That policeman had hidden the special statue in a wooden box, but he denied this." has the closest meaning to ____.
A. That policeman denied to have hidden the special statue in a wooden box.
B. That policeman denied had hidden the special statue in a wooden box.
C. That policeman denied having hide the special statue in a wooden box.
D. That policeman denied having hidden the special statue in a wooden box.
7. Scientists worry about the ____ of many species of plants and animals from our planet.
A. erupt                       B. amount                    C. erode                                   D. disappearance
8. The heavy rain has caused ____ in many parts of the country.
A. food                        B. drought                   C. importance                          D. floods
9. Plants ____ carbon dioxide from the air.
A. absorb                     B. resource                  C. sort                                      D. export
10. You need to ____ the tension in these shoulder muscles.
A. release                    B. pleasure                  C. strengthen                           D. enlighten
11. Your receptionnist talked to me after ____ with some other customers.
A. have dealt               B. having dealt                        C. dealt                        D. having dealing
12. The police suspected that strange van driver of ____ and eaten many wild animals.
A. hunting                   B. hunted                     C. having hunted                     D. had hunted
13. The factory ____ for dumping tons of toxic waste into the river.
A. was heavily fine          B. was heavily fined         C. was heavily fining                D. was heavily fines
14. There's an increased ____ for organic produce these days.
A. success                   B. prepare                    C. demand                               D. complete
15. Choose the word with a stress pattern different from the others.
A. emission                 B. infectious                C. identify                               D. fertilizer
16. We know of several mass ____ in the earth's history,
A. distinction               B. extinction                C. distinct                                D. extinctions
17. Choose the answer which needs correcting.
Spend all the money on advertising, he ended up going home empty-handed.
    A                    B                                            C                                 D
18. Choose the answer which needs correcting.
The student was criticized on having written his final paper carelessly.
                      A                  B                   C            D
19. Choose the word with a stress pattern different from the others.
A. alternative               B. catastrophic             C. interference                         D. disappearance
20. Choose the word with a stress pattern different from the others.
A. ecological               B. extinction                C. significantly                        D. economy
5. Rearrange the words/phrases to make meaningful sentences.
1. the / was / having / of / He / stolen / money. / accused
    He was accused of having stolen the money.
2. wine. / She / up / of / suddenly, / glass / stood / upsetting / a
    She stood up suddenly, upsetting a glass of wine.
3. trap. / he / right / walked / the / nothing, / Suspecting / into
    Suspecting nothing, he walked right into the trap.
4. finished / Having/ his / he / to / all / bed. / homework, / went
    Having finished all his homework, he went to bed.
5. film / before, / Having / the / the / didn't seen / want / I / to / to / cinema. / go
    Having seen the film before, I didn’t want to go to the cinema.
6. Read the passage and choose the best answer.
Mitigation and adaptation
Mitigation - reducing climate change - involves reducing the flow of heat-trapping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, either by reducing sources of these gases (for example, the burning of fossil fuels for electricity, heat or transport) or enhancing the "sinks" that ____ (1) and store these gases (such as the oceans, forests and soil). The goal of mitigation is to avoid dangerous human ____ (2) with the climate system, and "stabilize greenhouse gas levels in a timeframe sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner" (from the 2014 report on Mitigation of Climate Change from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, page 4). Adaptation - adapting to life in a changing climate - involves adjusting to actual or expected future climate. The goal is to reduce our ____ (3) to the harmful effects of climate change (like sea-level encroachment, more intense extreme weather events or food insecurity). It also encompasses making the most of any potential beneficial opportunities ____ (4) with climate change (for example, longer growing seasons or increased yields in some regions).
Throughout history, people and societies have adjusted to and coped ____ (5) changes in climate and extremes with varying degrees of success. Climate change (drought in particular) has been at least partly ____ (6) for the rise and fall of civilizations. Earth's climate has been relatively stable for the past 12,000 years and this ____ (7) has been crucial for the development of our modern civilization and life as we know it. Modern life is tailored to the stable climate we have become accustomed to. As our climate changes, we will have to learn to adapt. The faster the climate changes, the harder it could be.
While climate change is a global issue, it is felt on a local scale. Cities and municipalities are therefore at the frontline of adaptation. In the ____ (8) of national or international climate policy direction, cities and local communities around the world have been focusing on solving their own climate problems. They are working to build flood defenses, plan for heatwaves and higher temperatures, install water-permeable pavements to better deal with floods and stormwater and improve water storage and use.
According to the 2014 report on Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability (page 8) from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, governments at various levels are also getting better ____ (9) adaptation. Climate change is starting to be factored into a ____ (10) of development plans: how to manage the increasingly extreme disasters we are seeing and their associated risks, how to protect coastlines and deal with sea-level encroachment, how to best manage land and forests, how to deal with and plan for reduced water availability, how to develop resilient crop varieties and how to protect energy and public infrastructure.
1. A. private                B. separate                               C. dedicate                  D. accumulate
2. A. independence     B. interference                         C. indicate                   D. interrupt
3. A. view                   B. vulnerability                        C. volcano                   D. visible
4. A. associated           B. ashamed                              C. allow                       D. aimed
5. A. onto                    B. into                                     C. with                                    D. over
6. A. responsible         B. visible                                 C. focus                       D. impossible
7. A. ability                 B. able                                     C. stable                      D. stability
8. A. absent                 B. abstract                               C. absence                   D. abscess
9. A. at                        B. to                                        C. over                                    D. behind
10. A. several              B. lots                                      C. much                       D. variety

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