UNIT 1. THE GENERATION GAP - KEY (English Grade 11 - Tiếng anh lớp 11, Bài 1) - Sach hay, Top 10 hay nhat, NCKHSPUD, SKKN, Hoi dap


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Have you ever had the feeling that people older than you are hard to understand? Or, have you felt like people from younger generations just don't get it? Maybe you find it easier to ____ (1) with people who are closer to your age than those who are older or younger than you. You can probably thank the generation gap for these feelings.

UNIT 1. THE GENERATION GAP - KEY 
(English Grade 11 - Tiếng anh lớp 11, Bài 1)


PART I. LANGUAGE FOCUS
1. Vocabulary
extended family (n): gia đình nhiều thế hệ
nuclear family (n): gia đình hạt nhân
childcare (n): việc chăm sóc con cái
generation gap (n): khoảng cách giữa các thế hệ
table manners (n): cung cách ăn uống
appearance (n): ngoại hình
conservative (adj): bảo thủ
state - Owned (adj): thuộc nhà nước
follow in somebody's footsteps: theo gương ai
viewpoint (n): quan điểm
open-minded (adj): thoáng
impose (v): áp đặt
conflict (n): xung đột
decision (n): quyết định
norm (n): chuẩn mực
distract (v): làm phân tâm
brand name (n): hàng hiệu
afford (v): có khả năng chi trả
regardless of: bất kể
preference (n): sở thích
objection (n): sự phản đối
expectation (n): sự mong đợi
pierce (v): xâu khuyên (tai, mũi...)
extra-curricular (adj): ngoại khóa
curfew (n): lệnh giới nghiêm
studious (adj): chăm học
forbid (v): cấm
flashy (adj): hào nhoáng
elegant (adj): thanh lịch
homestay (n): ở cùng gia đình bản địa
frustrating (adj): khó chịu
privacy (n): sự riêng tư
sibling (n): anh chị em ruột
2. Grammar
2.1. Form: should, ought to, must, have to


should
ought to                                   + V(infinitive without to)
must
have/has/had to


e.g.      You ought to learn English to have a better job.
Cậu nên học Tiếng Anh để có công việc tốt hơn.
You must try a bit harder.
Anh phải cố gắng hơn một chút.
+ Notes:
> Phủ định của should là shouldn't, phủ định của must là mustn't, phủ định của ought to là ought not to, phủ định của have to là don't/ doesn't/didn't have to.
e.g.      You ought not to drink too much coffee.
(Chị không nên uống quá nhiều cafe.)
Linda doesn't have to study in the afternoon.
(Linda không phải học vào buổi chiều)
> Ta thường không dùng must và ought to với câu hỏi.
2.2. Use:
* should/ ought to (nên): dùng với các lời khuyên hoặc gợi ý.
e.g.      She should/ought to phone him as soon as possible.
(Chị ấy nên gọi điện cho anh ấy càng sớm càng tốt.)
* must (phải): dùng để diễn tả sự bắt buộc (xuất phát từ suy nghĩ hoặc cảm nhận của người nói, mang tính chủ quan).
e.g.      You must invite me to your wedding party.
(Em phải mời anh dự tiệc cưới của em đấy nhé.)
* have to (phải/cần): dùng để diễn tả sự bắt buộc/ cần thiết (xuất phát từ nội quy hoặc luật pháp, mang tính khách quan).
e.g.      I have to dress formally for work.
(Em phải ăn mặc trang trọng đi làm)
My son has to wear uniform for school.
(Con trai tôi phải mặc đồng phục đi học.)
  + Notes: Have got to được dùng trong văn nói nhiều hơn văn viết
e.g.      I've got to leave right now.
(Mình phải đi ngay bây giờ.)
Mustn't còn dùng để diễn tả điều cấm làm.
e.g.      You mustn't park here.
(Bạn không được phép đậu xe ở đây.)
3. Pronunciation
Strong and weak forms of words in connected speech (Dạng mạnh và yếu của từ trong lời nói)
Các từ trong câu Tiếng Anh được đọc với độ mạnh, yếu không giống nhau.
Strong forms (dạng mạnh): là các từ được nhấn mạnh (đọc to, rõ, dài) hơn các từ khác trong câu, các từ đó được gọi là content words (từ nội dung)-diễn tả ý nghĩa chính của cậu. Content words:

Nouns: Tom, cat, company

Verbs: live, study, travel
Adjectives: beautiful, green, attractive
Adverbs: carefully, hard, frequently
Pronouns: this, theirs, herself

Weak forms (dạng yếu): là các từ được đọc yếu (đọc nhỏ, ngắn) hơn các từ khác trong câu, các từ đó được gọi là function words (từ chức năng) - chúng ít quan trọng trong việc diễn tả ý nghĩa chính của câu mà chỉ tạo nên đầy đủ các thành phần cho cậu. Function words:

Auxiliary verbs: can, do, have

Prepositions: in, out, behind
Conjunctions: and, or, but
Determiners: a, the, some
Possessive adjectives: his, your, our

PART II. PRACTICE
1. Give the English word and Vietnamese meaning to each of the following transcription.

1. ___nuclear family____ /ˈnjuːkliə(r)ˈfæməli/ (n): _____gia đình hạt nhân_____
2. ___generation gap______ /ˌdʒenəˈreɪʃnɡæp/ (n): _____khoảng cách giữa các thế hệ______
3. ____impose______ /ɪmˈpəʊz/ (v): _____áp đặt______
4. _____norm_______ /nɔːm/ (n): ____chuẩn mực______
5. _____affrord______ /əˈfɔːd/ (v): _____có khả năng chi trả_____
6. _____preference_______ /ˈprefrəns/ (n): _____sở thích_____
7. _____objection______ /əbˈdʒekʃn/ (n): _____sự phản đối_____
8. ____curfew______ /ˈkɜːfjuː/ (n): _____lệnh giới nghiêm_____
9. ____frustrating______ /frʌˈstreɪtɪŋ/ (adj): _____khó chịu____
10. _____privacy______ /ˈprɪvəsi/ (n): ____sự riêng tư______


2. Give the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
1. You _____must not dress_______ (not/ must/ dress) too casually for work.
2. She ______has to get_______  (have to / get) a work permit before she goes.
3. I think that Peter ______ought to share_______ (ought to / share) the housework with his wife.
4. Yesterday, Jane _____had to get up_____ (have to / get up) really early to catch the ferry to work.
5. They ___do not have to take___ (not / have to / take) notes in this class because they are not required to do this.
6. Sam _____did not have to type_____ (not / have to / type) her assignment when she did it last year.
7. You ______should take_______ (should / take) a lot of passport photos with you.
8. Governments _____should also reduce_____ (also / should / reduce) the costs to the public of travelling on public transport.
9. Next week I _____will have to work_____ (have to / work) in another branch of my company.
10. ___Do you have to have_____ (you / have to have) passports for your dogs when you travel abroad?








3. Complete the following sentences.
1. I think you ____should talk to/ ask/ discuss with____ your teachers about it. I'm sure they will give you the best advice.
2. You _____mustn’t take____ photographs here. This is a restricted area.
3. Well, to visit some countries, you ______have to have a visa_____, so you ought to organize that before you go.
4. Notice to all conference participants: Please note that you _____must register______
before entering the conference hall.
5. The school cannot be held responsible for any loss or theft of students' property, so students ______________
_____must keep track of/ pay attention to______ their belongings.

4. Find and correct mistakes in following sentences.
1. I am going to New York next month, so I will must to buy a guidebook.
    I am going to New York next month, so I will have to buy a guidebook.
2. You always should carry plenty of loose change.
    You should always carry plenty of loose change.
3. Students who come to the class late ought to clean the floor. That’s the rule in my class.
    Students who come to the class late have to clean the floor. That’s the rule in my class.
4. You don't have to smoke inside but you can smoke outside.
    You mustn’t smoke inside but you can smoke outside.
5. I should leave now because I have a meeting.
    I have leave now because I have a meeting.

PART III. TEST YOURSELF
1. Gap - filling: Choose the suitable words from the box to complete the sentences.

conservative                forbids                         viewpoint                     frustrating                    open-minded

childcare                     impose             Conflicts                      generation gap                        extended family

1. Jenny lives in a/an _____extended family______ which consists of four generations.
2. Some young couples don't think twice before deciding to get married, so they do not have enough knowledge for taking care of children and ____childcare______ is too difficult for them.
3. My neighbor is an extremely ______conservative______ person. He insists that his son should follow in his footsteps.
4. The student responded that she didn't want her parents to ____impose____ their decision on her.
5. _____Conflicts_____ normally happen when people don't understand each other well.
6. My grandmother thinks that I should get a job in a state-owned organization after university; however, my parents don't share her _______viewpoint_______.
7. Eric should realize that his parents are quite _____open-minded____ as they only instruct him, but they never impose their decisions on him.
8. One disadvantage of living in an extended family is that it can be ____frustrating____ due to the lack of space, independence and privacy.
9. The law ______forbids_____ the sale of cigarettes to people under the age of 16.
10. Today there appears to be a new ______generation gap______ between the now older baby boomers and their kids about what will be.
2. Match each word/phrase on the left with its description on the right.
1. conservative
a. a way of thinking about a subject
2. viewpoint
b. showing that you prefer traditional styles and values
3. open-minded
c. to take somebody's attention away from what they are trying to do
4. distract
d. willing to listen to, think about or accept different ideas
5. extra-curricular
e. not part of the usual course of work or studies at a school or college
Your answer:
1. ____b____              2. ____a____              3. ____d____              4. ____c____              5. ____e____
3. Word formation: Give the correct form of the words in brackets.
brackets.
1. She complained that the photographs were an invasion of her _______privacy_____ (private)
2. ____Generational______ consciousness is another way of distinguishing among generations that was worked on by social scientist Karl Mannheim. (Generate)
3. By this way, you can cope up with the ______expectation(s)_____ of the kids and always be updated. (expect)
4. Social, economic, or political changes can bring _____awareness_____ to these shared interests and values for similarly-aged people who experience these events together. (aware)
5. James is a _______studious______ student. Not only does he complete all required exercises but he looks for some extra ones as well. (study)
6. The main _______objection______ to the plan was that it would cost too much. (object)
7. Many people expressed a strong _________preference_________ for the original plan because of its effectiveness. (prefer)
8. The amount will be paid to everyone _______regardless_______ of whether they have children or not. (regard)
9. The major factor causing the generation gap is the lack of _____communication______ between parents and their children. (communicate)
10. Some parents may also find their children's behavior unacceptable and _____disrespectful______ to traditional values. (respect)
4. Choose the best answer.
1. She considered people to be products of the values and norms of the society they lived in. The underlined word has the closest meaning to ____.
A. rules                        B. rulers                       C. roles                        D. rails
2. Anna: "Do your parents and you share any viewpoints?" - Jessica: “____”
A. Good idea. I like football but they like volleyball.
B. Well, my parents like to work for state-owned companies.
C. Actually, working for an international corporation is my dream.
D. Yes, we believe that practice makes perfect.
3. Children should keep calm when their parents try to ____ their choices of university or career on them. What they need to do is to point out some disadvantages of following in their footsteps.
A. impose                    B. expose                    C. compose                 D. enclose
4. Those enable them to begin making their own interpretations of the world based ____ personal encounters that set them apart from other generations.
A. on                           B. in                            C. of                            D. after
5. “You are not allowed to press the red button on this machine." has the closest meaning to ____.
A. You ought to press the red button on this machine.
B. You mustn't press the red button on this machine.
C. You do not have to press the red button on this machine.
D. You should not to press the red button on this machine.
6. "It would be a good idea for you to exercise more in the morning." has the closest meaning to ____.
A. You ought to exercise more in the morning.
B. You should to exercise more in the morning.
C. You have to exercise more in the morning.
D. You must not exercise more in the morning.
7. A ____ is a person's opinion about a subject.
A. power point                        B. viewpoint                C. overview                 D. viewer
8. A twenty-year-old boy should not be dealt ____ the same as when he was five years old.
A. with                        B. for                           C. to                            D. over
9. According to a survey a lot of young people prefer to live in ____ families which consist of parents and children.
A. nuclear                    B. extended                 C. three generation                  D. four generation
10. The ____ family, which consists of three or even four generations, is only popular in some regions today.
A. nuclear                    B. extended                 C. intended                              D. small
11. First of all, we ____ to walk or cycle if we can, rather than using our cars.
A. should to try           B. ought try to             C. ought to try                         D. have try to
12. I don't think you ____ to do your sister's assignment. She should do it herself.
A. ought                      B. ought not                C. must                                    D. have to
13. I can do volunteer work on Sunday because I ____  go to school on that day.
A. don't have to           B. must                        C. ought not to                        D. should
14. What ____ about if you are going to go travelling?
A. must you think                                            B. ought you think
C. do you have to think                                   D. ought to you think
15. Choose the word with a stress pattern different from the others.
A. bulky                      B. believe                    C impose                                 D. afford
16. If you go to Nepal, you ____ around a Buddhist temple in a clockwise direction.
A. always must walk                                       B. always should walk
C. ought always walk                                      D. must always walk
17. Choose the answer which needs correcting.
Permission to come by bicycle should be obtain from the form teacher.
                   A           B                               C              D
18. Choose the answer which needs correcting.
Any bicycles brought onto school grounds must left locked in the bicycle sheds provided.
  A                      B                                              C                                                        D
19. Choose the word with a stress pattern different from the others.
A sibling                      B. curfew                    C. distract                                D. homestay
20. Choose the answer which needs correcting.
Governments should taken advice from experts before making new laws.
                                A                       B                    C                                       D
5. Rearrange the words/phrases to make meaningful sentences.
1. not / You / use / your / must / mobile / examination / in / the / room. / phone
    You must not use your mobile phone in the examination room.
2. hope / I /to / that/ work /I / late / night. / won't have / at
    I hope that I won’t have to work late at night.
3. never / You / do / again. / must / that
    You must never do that again.
4. She / on / always / an / her / keep / children. / should / eye
    She should always keep an eye on her children.
5. railings / must / be / to / not / Bicycles / chained / the / school /.
    Bicycles must not be chained to the school railings.
6. Read the passage and choose the best answer.
Definition of Generation Gap and Causes
Have you ever had the feeling that people older than you are hard to understand? Or, have you felt like people from younger generations just don't get it? Maybe you find it easier to ____ (1) with people who are closer to your age than those who are older or younger than you. You can probably thank the generation gap for these feelings.

There are currently six generations living in the United States: the Greatest Generation, Silent Generation, Baby Boomers, Generation X, Millennials, and Generation Z. Each generation has its own unique set of characteristics and ____ (2). For example, the Greatest Generation (born 1901-1924) is known for its patriotism, hard workers, and loyalty to institutions. The Millennials (born 1980-2000) are characterized by their dependence on technology, detachment from traditional institutions, optimism, and ____ (3). It is no wonder that many people from different generations have a hard time understanding each other.
Generation gap ____ (4) to differences in actions, beliefs, interests, and opinions that exist between individuals from different generations. So, what causes these differences?
One factor that has heavily influenced generation gaps is the ____ (5) rate of change in society. In the 1800s, developments in society were slow. As a result, two or three generations lived lifestyles that were very ____ (6) to each other.
 There weren't many differences across generations. However, given technological and social advances that have taken place in the 20th and 21st centuries, the lifestyles of individuals even one generation apart are drastically different from each other.
Just think about all of the changes in technology that ____ (7) in the past 20 years. Many individuals from older generations are having trouble keeping up ____ (8) the modern technologies that Millennials have become accustomed to. Due to generation gaps, a child may explain to an adult how to use technology, or a young adult will choose to spend his time on public transportation texting, while an older man passes the time reading.
Another factor that has influenced the generation gap is the increased mobility of society. In earlier generations, society was not very mobile. Most people stayed in the same area or country. There was ____ (9) contact with people outside of one's general area. Access to information from other cultures was limited. However, with the increasing advances of technology, people began ____ (10) to new things.
1. A. approach                         B. connect                   C. concentrate                         D. relate
2. A. norms                             B. norm                       C. normal                                D. normally
3. A. open-minded                  B. pessimism               C. open-mindedness                D. pessimistic
4. A. distract                            B. focuses                    C. relate                                   D. refers
5. A. accelerating                    B. accelerate                C. celebrating                          D. celebrate
6. A. different                          B. similar                     C. same                                   D. relate
7. A. have occurred                 B. has occurred           C. had occurred                       D. occurred
8. A. with                                B. for                           C. to                                        D. from
9. A. a little                              B. much                       C. little                         D. amount of
10. A. to being introduced       B. to be introduce        C. to be introduced                  D. to introduce

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